Dark Matter Observers

Year: 2015-16

Grade: 9-12

Liceo Los Robles Astronomy Club Maracaibo

City: Maracaibo

Teachers: Julio Bermudez, Anderson Gonzales

Target: Rings and Moons

Team Members:

Arturo Negrette (team leader) Liceo Los Robles
Andres Guerrero (team leader) Liceo Los Robles
Santiago Soto Liceo Los Robles
JoseMaria Marin Liceo Los Robles
Lermith Biaretta (team leader) Liceo Los Robles
Maria Fernanda Biarretta (team leader) Colegio Altamira
Alexander Ocando Liceo Los Robles
Aria Matos (team leader) Colegio Altamira
Melissa Romero Colegio Uru
Jesus Romero (team leader) Colegio Ntra,Sra. de Fatima
Tania Margarita Zerpa (team leader) Colegio Abilio Reyes Ochoa

"We choose target 1 because Enceladus is mostly covered by fresh, clean ice, reflecting almost all the sunlight that strikes it, making its surface temperature at noon reach only 198 °C. Despite its small size, Enceladus has a wide range of surface features, ranging from old, heavily cratered regions to young, tectonically deformed terrains that formed as recently as 100 million years ago. This moon orbits within the densest part of the E Ring, a most intriguing factor is that the water on it heats up in two ways, a chemical way and a radioactive way. In July 2009 it was announced at a JPL conference that traces of ammonia had been found in the plumes during flybys in July and October 2008. Reducing the freezing point of water with ammonia would allow for outgassing and higher gas pressure, and less heat required to power water plumes.

The subsurface layer heating the surface water ice could be ammonia-wáter slurry at temperatures as low as -103 °C. Much energy is required to produce plume activity, assuming Enceladus has a composition of ice, iron and silicate materials. Heating from long lived radioactive isotopes inside Enceladus would add 0.3 gigawatts to the observed heat flux. So, Water, Lifemolecules (Nitrogen, Carbon, Silicon, etc.) and a heat source make Enceladus a potential extraterrestrial life place.

We have to say that surely the composition of Saturn's rings of ice, rock and dust is because Enceladus is emanating trails ice geysers in the area. And the rocks and dust from the bombing and coalitions that happen by the constant movement of its satellites and foreign particles from space attracted Saturn's magnetosphere.

Enceladus is something extraordinary for planetary scientists, because in terms of polar and marine geology, hydrology, microbial science and bacteriology, we can get great results from existence of life.

The blue hue is the amount of liquid hydrogen to form water mixture and the hue of the ice is white because of frozen water mixed with mineral salts. What it is to be sure that houses microbial life."

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